Friday, August 30, 2013

OBJECTIVES,SCOPE, DEFINITIONS of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 1

This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles


This Standard prescribes the basis for presentation of general purpose financial statements to ensure comparability both with the entity’s financial statements of previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. It sets out overall requirements for the presentation of financial statements, guidelines for their structure and minimum requirements for their content


An entity shall apply this Standard in preparing and presenting general purpose financial statements in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs).

Other Ind ASs set out the recognition, measurement and disclosure requirements for specific transactions and other events.

This Standard does not apply to the structure and content of condensed interim financial statements prepared in accordance with Ind AS 34 Interim Financial Reporting. However, paragraphs 15–35 apply to such financial statements. This Standard applies equally to all entities, including those that present consolidated financial statements and those that present separate financial statements as defined in Ind AS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements

This Standard uses terminology that is suitable for profit-oriented entities, including public sector business entities. If entities with not-for-profit activities in the private sector or the public sector apply this Standard, they may need to amend the descriptions used for particular line items in the financial statements and for the financial statements themselves.

Similarly, entities whose share capital is not equity may need to adapt the financial statement presentation of members’ interests


The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

General purpose financial statements (referred to as ‘financial statements’) are those intended to meet the needs of users who are not in a position to require an entity to prepare reports tailored to their particular information needs.

Impracticable Applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every reasonable effort to do so.

Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs) are Standards prescribed under Section 211(3C) of the Companies Act, 1956.

Material Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions that users make on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.

Assessing whether an omission or misstatement could influence economic decisions of users, and so be material, requires consideration of the characteristics of those users. The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India states in paragraph 25 that ‘users are assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and accounting and a willingness to study the information with reasonable diligence.’ Therefore, the assessment needs to take into account how users with such attributes could reasonably be expected to be influenced in making economic decisions.

Notes contain information in addition to that presented in the balance sheet (including statement of changes in equity which is a part of the balance sheet), statement of profit and loss and statement of cash flows. Notes provide narrative descriptions or disaggregations of items presented in those statements and information about items that do not qualify for recognition in those statements

Other comprehensive income comprises items of income and expense (including reclassification adjustments) that are not recognised in profit or loss as required or permitted by other Ind ASs:

(a) changes in revaluation surplus (see Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and Ind AS 38) Intangible Assets);

(b) actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit plans recognised in accordance with paragraph 92 and 129A of Ind AS 19
Employee Benefits;

(c) gains and losses arising from translating the financial statements of a foreign operation (see Ind AS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates);

(d) gains and losses on remeasuring available-for-sale financial assets (see Ind AS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement );

(e) the effective portion of gains and losses on hedging instruments in a cash flow hedge (see Ind AS 39).

Owners are holders of instruments classified as equity. Profit or loss is the total of income less expenses, excluding the components of other comprehensive income The components of other comprehensive income include Reclassification adjustments are amounts reclassified to profit or loss in the current period that were recognised in other comprehensive income in the current or previous periods. 

Total comprehensive incomeis the change in equity during a period resulting from transactions and other events, other than those changes resulting from transactions with owners in their capacity as owners.

Total comprehensive income comprises all components of ‘profit or loss’ and of ‘other comprehensive income’.

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